Publications & Resources

Our faculty, students and researchers work together everyday to contribute to a better world by grappling with urgent problems we are facing in India. We conduct rigorous work to produce high quality learning resources and publications to contribute to public discourse and social change. Here, we feature a sample from our work for everyone to access. You can explore featured resources, policies, and the latest publications from the University. 

To explore all the work of our University, please visit our publications repository.

  • Bahl Shrivastava Fiscal Transfers Inflation December 2019
    Published
    Authors

    Abstract

    Controlling for monetary policy, government transfers are potentially inflationary. This, however, may not be true when the economy is demandconstrained. Using a panel data of 17 Indian states over 30 years, we show that government transfers via welfare programs do not lead to inflation. For identification, we use a narrative shock series of transfer spending that is based on the introduction of new welfare programs. We then look at a specific program, NREGA, which has been shown to increase rural wages, and show that its implementation did not increase inflation.

    Authors:

    • Girish Bahal
    • Anand Shrivastava

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  • Mehrotra Giri Size Structure Indian Entreprises December 2019
    Published
    Authors

      Abstract

      Most international development economics and industrial organization literature emphasises the importance of SMEs (small and medium enterprises) as important to output, but especially to employment generation. Countries have different definitions for SMEs. In India the MSMEs (micro, small and medium enterprises) are defined in terms of investment in plant and machinery or equipment. The MSME Ministry (Annual Report, Government of India 2017 – 18) stated that the sector accounts for 45% of the manufacturing output and 40% of the total exports of the country; also that MSMEs accounted for 30.74% of GDP in 2014– 15. Not surprising, MSMEs are considered a driving force of the economy.

      Authors:

      • Santosh Mehrotra
      • Tuhinsubhra Giri

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    • Learning Curve Issue 5 Dec 2019 Cover
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        Abstract

        In this issue, we have a wide range of articles from writers who have looked at children with disabilities in a variety of ways- but through the same lens: inclusion. There are articles tracing the history of different organizations which have worked for several years to create opportunities for the education of children with disabilities, language acquisition, travel, opportunities for independence and respectful acceptance, among others.

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      • RA Issue 5 Nov 2019 English Cover Page
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          Abstract

          AtRiA, November 2019 focuses on journeys ‑some are enjoyable, some tiresome, some endless. A mathematician’s journey is full of unexpected delight, simply because of unexpected detours, sudden discoveries and interesting alternatives. Have fun as you travel with us. Read all about the young Yatris and their journey of discovery in Features. This section also describes more abstract journeys from the Regular Pentagon to the Icosahedron and the Dodecahedron (Part 2) and from the familiar 2 and 3 dimensions to n dimensions in Extension of the Pythagorean Theorem. In ClassRoom, Simple Cryptography and Triangles with Integer Sides are articles sparked off by previous articles in AtRiA . An Unusual Proof of the Centroid Theorem, Modified Pascal Triangle and Orthocentre of a Triangle may motivate you to write similarly! You will find ideas in our regular columns – How to Prove It, Low Flow High Ceiling and TechSpace which features the simulation of a dice game this time. Our issue is short of 100% without the PullOut, enjoy the learning trajectory on Percentages, defined and illustrated with plenty of examples in this issue. How Craig Barton Wishes he’d Taught Maths is an excellent review by Sir Timothy William Gowers, reprinted from his Weblog.

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        • WIP14
          Published
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            Abstract

            While India has made progress in achieving important health sector goals, there is still a long way to go. The Government of India has adopted decentralization or devolution with the objective of promoting greater equity and supporting people-centred, responsive health systems. We report on a study that problematizes the idea of strengthening health sector governance through decentralization and that explores the intersection of the political goal of enhanced local-level autonomy and the programmatic goal of more responsive health service delivery. The study examines the extent to which both political and programmatic decentralization are functional at the village level; looks at the design and objectives of decentralization at the village level; and considers whether sustained and supportive capacity building can create the necessary conditions for more genuine de facto decentralization and empowerment of village-level functionaries. Our methodology included semi-structured interviews with village-level functionaries in two districts of Karnataka, based on which we designed an Action Research to strengthen coordination and synergy between the functionaries responsible for political and programmatic decentralization. We found that both political and programmatic decentralization at the village level are at risk due to a lack of convergence between the political and programmatic arms of the government. This is substantially due to problems inherent in the design of the decentralization mechanism at the district level and below. Sustained capacity building can contribute to the more effective application of decentralization mechanisms, but systemic issues regarding the decentralization mechanisms need to be addressed alongside. We were also able to identify some spaces where coordination between village-level functionaries is possible, and the steps that need to be taken to build on this potential.

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          • Raavi India s Industrial Policy November 2019
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              Abstract

              This article analyses relationships between the implementation of state-level industrial policies in India and manufacturing sector economic performance (employment and gross value added), utilising data from the Annual Survey of Industries conducted by the Government of India. I employ panel data fixed-effects regression models to evaluate the associations between the industrial policy and state-industry specific performance over the 2007-08 to 2014 – 15 period, incorporating potential effects of the state government’s political alignment, infrastructure provision and educational expenditure in the state. The results provide evidence of a positive correlation between industrial policy implementation and firm output and employment, by around 12.6 — 14 per cent. However, subsequent introductions of an industrial policy are negatively associated with employment and are uncorrelated with industrial GVA. This analysis has implications for economic policy in light of the Central Government’s plans to implement a revised industrial policy at the national scale.

              Author:

              • Raavi Aggarwal

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            • Report

              State of Working India 2019

              in Azim Premji University

              SWI2019 Front
              Published
              Authors

              Abstract

              To contribute to the critical matter of India creating just and sustainable employment, the University has set up the Centre for Sustainable Employment (CSE), which conducts and supports research in areas of work, labour, and employment. The University is attempting to provide empirically grounded, analytical reflections on the state of work and workers in India, as well as to evaluate and propose policies that aim to create sustainable jobs. To this end the University also gives grants to create new knowledge in the above areas. It also hosts a working paper series to which contributions are invited from researchers, policy-makers, civil society actors, and journalists. The University’s CSE website is an important part of this agenda. In addition to research papers and policy briefs, it hosts government reports, as well as data and statistics on the Indian labour market. This also includes executive summary of the report.

              State of Working India 2019 consists of labour market trends between 2016 and 2018, and four policy papers around the theme of employment generation.

              Download Full Report

              Executive Summary

              Media Coverage and Press Release

              Download Chapters

              Release event: Presentation and panel discussion

              State of Working India 2019 Release Event Part One — YouTube

              State of Working India 2019 Release Event Part Two — YouTube

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            • Microenterprises in India
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              Abstract

              Microenterprises have been the engines of job growth in the majority of dynamic economies. India is home to thousands of microenterprise clusters as well as millions of distributed entrepreneurs who can become job creators. Fostering of such mass-entrepreneurship is key to addressing India’s employment challenge. Case studies of clusters in general, and of women entrepreneurs in particular, show that if key factors such as collective action, infrastructure, credit, and market linkages are in place, returns to entrepreneurship are vastly improved. Inspirational stories are also emerging in the use of fourth industrial revolution technologies to improve access to markets and enter global value chains in a way that awards greater agency to women entrepreneurs.

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            • Mehrotra Parida India Employment Crisis
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              Authors

                Abstract

                Falling total employment is an unprecedented trend seen from 2011-12 to 2017 – 18. Due to a decline of employment in agriculture and manufacturing and slow growth of construction jobs, the process of structural transformation, which had gained momentum post-2004 – 5, has stalled since 2012. Mounting educated youth unemployment, and lack of quality non-farm jobs have resulted in an increase of the disheartened labour force. Though the share of regular and formal employment increased marginally due to growth of formal jobs in the private sectors, the share of informal jobs within government/​public sector increased. A dominant share of jobs is still generated by micro and small units of the unorganized sectors without any formal or written job contract. In both government and private sectors the number of contract jobs (with less than a year’s contract) is on the rise post 2011-12. Not surprisingly, real wages have not increased in either rural or urban areas.

                Authors:

                • Santosh Mehrotra
                • Jajati K. Parida

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              • WIP13
                Published
                Authors

                  Abstract

                  Most discussions on the quality of government data overlook the legal framework within which data are collected. This paper examines India’s Census Act, 1948, which provides the legal-administrative framework for conducting human population census. The Act stipulates punishment for interfering with the process of enumeration, but the punitive provisions are rarely used and have not been invoked to deal with cases of mass manipulation of the census. Major instances of manipulation were, in fact, reported in 1951 and 2001 after the government introduced additional punitive measures in 1948 and 1994, respectively. This paper compares the Census Act, 1948 with other Indian laws related to the collection of statistics as well as census laws of other common law countries and identifies the structural flaws of the Indian law vis-à-vis manipulation. It uses simple games to explain why the punitive provisions of the Census Act, 1948 are redundant in the event of mass manipulation and suggests that the problem can be addressed without recourse to law. The insights drawn from the games are examined in light of the experience of Nagaland, a state of India where census statistics were manipulated on a large scale in 2001.

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                • Pathshala Issue 3 Aug 2019 Cover Page
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                    Abstract

                    पाठशाला भीतर और बाहर का तीसरा अंक स्कूली शिक्षा के दो महत्त्वपूर्ण सरोकारों पर चर्चा व विश्लेषण करता हैं- रटन्त पढ़ाई का मसला और सही मायने में सीखने का सवाल। शारीरिक दण्ड के ऐतिहासिक और दार्शनिक आयामों पर भी इसमें एक लेख शामिल है। इस अंक में कुछ अनुभव आधारित लेख भी हैं जिनमें एक ग्रामीण परिस्थितियों में शिक्षक की निर्मिति पर, एक स्कूल हेडमास्टर की यादों पर और एक इस बात से सम्बन्धित है कि हम बच्चों को कितना समझते हैं। भारत में शिक्षा के विकास पर लेख की ऋंखला इस अंक में भी जारी है क्योंकि इसमें यात्रा के एक महत्त्वपूर्ण कालखंड के अध्ययन को प्रस्तुत किया गया है। हर अंक की तरह इस अंक में भी शिक्षकों से साक्षात्कार और पुस्तक चर्चा जैसे स्थाई स्तम्भ शामिल हैं। 

                    The third issue has articles that discuss and analyse two important concerns of school education – the question of rote memorization and actual learning. There is also an article on the historical and philosophical dimensions of corporal punishment. There are interesting experience-based articles – one on the process of making of a teacher, one on the reminiscences of a school headmaster and another related to how much we understand children. The series on the development of education in India continues as it covers an important period in that journey. Then there are regular columns like interview with a teacher and book reviews.

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                  • Report

                    Published
                    Authors

                      Abstract

                      The Karnataka Crime Victimisation Survey report is based on the findings of a crime victimisation survey undertaken by Azim Premji University with the assistance of independent field investigators in 2017. The main objective of the survey was to understand the scope and nature of crime in the state and to analyse the extent to which the National Crime Records Bureau records capture the rate of crime in Karnataka. 

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                    • Learning Curve Issue 4 Aug 2019 Cover
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                        Abstract

                        It is certainly a platitude to say that learning can happen everywhere and at all times, at the most unexpected places and moments in our lives. However, that said, we also recognise that the school is a very valuable place of learning: formally and systematically in a graded way,level upon level so that we can tackle end-of-stage examinations which help us to choose our futures. But while all this is happening, a lot of undocumented and stimulating learning is going on simultaneously,
                        In this issue, articles on experiential learning about the environment, reading as a means of expanding horizons as well as acquiring language skills, the morning assembly as a treasure house of the learning experience- are all here. Other articles have given detailed accounts of science as a dispeller of superstition and an enhancer of a spirit of enquiry and curiosity. Sports do more than just teach the rules of the game, suggests an article: they can internalise values, inculcate inclusion and gender equality. There is an array of perspectives on the learning within learning which, paradoxically, falls outside of it.
                        All in all, this issue confirms what has long been felt and known — the learning that occurs outside the classroom is as vital as the formal pedagogy which takes place inside.

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                      • Magazine

                        i wonder… Issue 3

                        in Azim Premji University

                        I wonder Issue 3 Aug 2019 FR
                        Published
                        Authors

                          Abstract

                          Explore big questions around 4 themes: black holes, the wound healing capacity of the skin, Higgs bosons, and the matrix of life. 

                          Use the activity sheets in A milky way to learn biology’, What do we really see’, and Trees and seasons in a changing world’ to introduce students to thinking like a scientist, the human vision, and neighborhood trees. 

                          Discover how astronomers measure distances in space in our new section How do we know?’ Explore how engaging students in raising an urban terrace farm can strengthen their understanding and involvement with the local environment in Pedagogy of dirty hands’. 

                          Try out the concept builder from Physics for closeted Aristotelians’ to find out how well your students understand motion under gravity. 

                          Read our Research to practice’ section to discover how to create embodied learning experiences for students in the science classroom. Or learn more about the first image of a black hole in our section Hot off the press’.

                          Looking for more? Enjoy our pull-out poster on human skin and booklet on identifying 10 common trees.

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                        • RA Issue 4 July 2019 English Cover Page
                          Published
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                            Abstract

                            The July 2019 issue features Fractals on the cover — those distant and beautiful and highly mathematical creations have been brought a click away in our TechSpace section. Enjoy creating them and adding to your repertoire. We also take you through the magical tour of the beauty of mathematics starting with an article on Pentagons. Pi enters the ClassRoom section and the primary has plenty of learning — have fun joining the dots and exploring geometrical figures with different lenses. Students share their mathematical findings in two exciting articles. Our pedagogy article helps you to Understand Learners’ Thinking. And the Middle School problem corner is a Do_​It_​Yourself hands on problem solving section. The PullOut is on Ratio. 

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                          • Mehrotra Gendered Labour Market July 2019
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                              Abstract

                              Globally, research has shown that, there is a high correlation between the level of per capita income and the rate of female labour force participation. At the same time the agency and autonomy of women in a country improve with the level of female labour force participation.

                              Authors:

                              • Santosh Mehrotra

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                            • Abraham Shrivastava How Comparable Are India s Labour Market Surveys May 2019
                              Published
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                              Abstract

                              With the lack of official government data on unemployment and other labour market indicators, the most viable and recent source have been the regular household surveys conducted by the Centre for Monitoring the Indian Economy (CMIE). Given the differences in methods in data collection, it becomes exceedingly important to establish some comparability between the government and the CMIE datasets. This paper attempts to do that using two methods. First we fit a model of employment status on the CMIE data and see how well it predicts outcomes in the older Labour Bureau 2015 – 16 and NSS 2011-12 data. Then we compare state-level estimates of broad labour market indicators from CMIE 2016 and Labour Bureau 2015 – 16 datasets. The broad results are that despite differences in methodologies, the estimates for men are quite comparable between the surveys, while measures of women’s participation in the labour force seem particularly sensitive to the way questions are asked in surveys.

                              Authors:

                              • Rosa Abraham
                              • Anand Shrivastava

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                            • crpe-politics-scoeity-2019cover
                              Published
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                                Abstract

                                The problems of India’s development and governance are routinely linked to the logic of India’s electoral democracy. As a result, a great deal is known about elections, but paradoxically our knowledge of politics and society between elections is relatively underdeveloped. As much as anything else, development and governance outcomes are shaped by how the government functions between elections; including how it relates to citizens on a regular basis, how it provides routine public services to them, and how public order is maintained. Further, governance processes are nested in the social and political relationships between citizens and government functionaries.

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                              • Learning Curve Issue 3 April 2019 Cover
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                                  Abstract

                                  This issue focusses on Textbooks and their significance in learning, how they are created, the ways they have been used and how they can be improved upon. The articles are based on classroom experience and as such are relevant and universal. Much thought has gone into the perceptive analyses by the authors, who have considered the full impact and importance of the power of textbooks.

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                                • RA Issue 3 March 2019 English Cover Page
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                                    Abstract

                                    The March 2019 issue is packed with articles for students, teachers and teacher educators of all classes. Striking results are not just reported, they are also explained and justified with proofs. And our sources vary from students to observations from colleagues in mathematics classrooms and mathematical tricks from websites- these are explored and explained.

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                                  • Pathshala Issue 2 Feb 2019 Cover Page
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                                      Abstract

                                      पाठशाला भीतर और बाहर के अंक 2 में भारतीय शिल्प व चित्रकला में, शिक्षण सम्बन्धी चित्रों के बारे में लेखों की दिलचस्प ऋंखला शृंखला का पहला भाग शामिल है। यह लेख शिक्षा के रोचक इतिहास के एक पहलू को खोलता है। इस अंक में विज्ञान शिक्षण पर दो अन्य लेख हैं, जो इस विषय में कुछ काम करने प्रयासों और विज्ञान सीखने में मिलने वाले आनन्द व जुड़ाव की बात करते हैं। एक लेख फ़ेल न करने की नीति और इसकी ग़लत व्याख्याओं के बारे में है। एक लेख में शिक्षक की पहचान व स्थिति की पुनर्कल्पना करने की आवश्यकता, इसमें स्कूल नेतृत्व की भूमिका और चुनौतियों की चर्चा है। इस अंक में भाषा शिक्षण और सीखने के पहलुओं पर अध्यापकों से बातचीत भी शामिल है। महत्त्वपूर्ण भाषाओँ पर अंग्रेज़ी की पकड़ कैसे बनी, इसके विश्लेषण पर आधारित एक लेख भी इस अंक में शामिल है। 

                                      The second issue of Pathshala..” carries the first part of a very interesting series on schools as they were. The article brings out in an interesting manner how we come to know about what happened in earlier times. Two other articles on science teaching talk about the effort of making something work and the joy and engagement it brings to learning science. There are articles that discuss the policy of non-detention and the way it is mis-interpreted, the need to re-imagine the identity and status of the teacher, what role does school leadership play in it and the challenges the leadership faces. The conversation with teachers is on dimensions of language teaching and learning. There is also an article that analyzes the way English has captured the place of the most important language.

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                                    • Magazine

                                      i wonder… Issue 2

                                      in Azim Premji University

                                      I wonder issue 2
                                      Published
                                      Authors

                                        Abstract

                                        Explore three Emerging Trends in Chemistry’ – new elements, metal-organic frameworks, and fluorescent tags. Read Serendipity’ & Annals of History’ to re-live the exciting jigsaw-puzzle-like process of scientific discovery – whether of a novel protein or the structure of DNA

                                        Engage with the process of encouraging peer instruction in the science classroom through Students as Teachers’, or use our activity sheet Early Bird Nature Detectives Bingo’ to get students to observe (non-human) life in their backyards. 

                                        Use our Science Lab’ section to get your students to calculate their molar masses (!) or understand pressure and volume through simple experiments with easily available low-cost materials. 

                                        Discover the chemicals in everyday phenomenon through The Scent Orchestra of Flowers’ & The Chemistry of Life’. 

                                        Explore the concept of energy from three very different perspectives with The Mystery of Dark Energy’, Powering (human) Life on Earth’ & Clean Energy’. Plus, enjoy our two pull-out posters on Doppler Effect’ and Some interesting scents of flowers’.

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                                      • Mehrotra Sinha Women Labour Force January 2019
                                        Published
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                                          Abstract

                                          A continuous and sharp decline in the already depressed female labour force participation rate in India post 2005, particularly in the face of its rapid economic growth raises questions about the inclusiveness of the growth process. The paper recommends a set of policies based on the analysis of the nature and trends of female work participation and a brief analysis of the underlying reasons behind such trends. Women are moving out of the low productivity agricultural sector, which necessitates an increase in employment opportunities in the nonagricultural sector, particularly in rural and in semi-urban locations. Improving skills for employability, especially in manufacturing clusters (which is where the jobs are) located close to young girls’ rural homes, would help the females to join the labour force if non-agricultural jobs are growing. To release women from unpaid work in the household to join the paid labour force, it is essential to improve child care facilities and other basic service facilities, which again calls for raising the share of public expenditure in some sectors and specific facilities. For instance, increasing single working women’s housing, making public transport safer, and modifying public programmes to cater to women’s needs can pave the way for more women to engage and remain in the labour force, become active participants in the growth process, and thus achieve greater economic empowerment.

                                          Authors:

                                          • Santosh Mehrotra
                                          • Sharmistha Sinha

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                                        • Dewan Prakash Job Quality
                                          Published
                                          Authors

                                            Abstract

                                            Indians are optimistic. According to the Pew Research Center’s 2017 Global Attitudes Survey, three out of four Indians believe that, when children today in India grow up, they will be better off financially than their parents” (Pew Global Attitudes Survey, 2017). Families hinge their hopes on the ability of the next generation to work hard, earn a living, and be a source of financial support. For years now, the nation has done the same, pinning its economic ambitions to a demographic advantage, or youth bulge, that is set to continue only for the next two decades. Unless there are pathways to productive and high-quality employment, the nation’s youth will not be able to deliver on these expectations.

                                            Authors:

                                            • Sabina Dewan
                                            • Divya Prakash

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