Unboxed — The Harmonium In India

In this two-episode series, discover how the harmonium took root in India and captured the hearts of Indians

Harmonium Website Banner

The harmonium. So organic and familiar is its sound that few Indians would imagine that its origins lie outside their country. Yet, packed into its compact box-like shape is a fabled history that meanders from 19th century Europe to 20th century colonial India. 

An instrument invented — and patented — in Europe by a Frenchman, the harmonium was reinvented in colonial Calcutta by Dwarkanath Ghose, a Bengali instrument-maker, to suit Indian climatic conditions, musical playing styles, and affordability. While its sound drew congregations together, it equally irked nationalists and patriots who warned of its propensity to pollute the refined musical ear of Indians. Despite the opposition, the popularity of the harmonium spread like wildfire as it accompanied folk musicians of various persuasions across the country, and thereafter into the world as a cultural export with the Indian diaspora. 

Unpacking this fascinating tale for Radio Azim Premji University is Sharmadip Basu, who teaches history and social science at the university. Tune into Unboxed — The Harmonium In India, an absorbing two-part series.


Akshay Ramuhalli, Bijoy Venugopal, Bruce Lee Mani, Harshit Gogoi, Narayan Krishnaswamy, Prashant Vasudevan, Sananda Dasgupta, Seema Seth, Shraddha Gautam, Supriya Joshi, and Velu Shankar 

Further Reading

  • Book: The Harmonium in North Indian Music authored by Brigit Abels (1 January 2010
  • Journal Article: That Ban(e) of Indian Music: Hearing Politics in The Harmonium authored by Matt Rahaim | The Journal of Asian Studies 
  • Journal Article: The Harmonium and Indian Music authored by BC Deva (Sep 1, 1981)| Journal of Indian Musicological Society; Baroda. Vol. 12 Iss. 3.
  • Journal Article: Tracking the Harmonium from Christian Missionary Hymns to Sikh Kirtan authored by Gurminder Kaur Bhogal (2022) Yale Journal of Music and Religion. Vol. 8 No. 2 
  • Research Paper: The introduction and use of the harmonium in North Indian classical music authored by John James Napier (1994)

Feature Articles:

Explore the series