This course focuses on scientific thought. The aim of the course is to introduce students to scientific epistemology and methodology. It enables students to engage with, and critically evaluate, scientific work. The course introduces students to recent literature about the process, scope, and issues in knowledge construction by scientists addressing questions like – what it means for a scientific theory to be verified by evidence? What is the structure of a scientific theory? What happens when new evidence challenges an established scientific theory? Is there any method to science at all? Students will then apply the concepts learnt to concrete debates in natural (physics, chemistry, biology) and social sciences (sociology, economics).