Sign In


The study will examine the impact of expansion of social security on labour relations in the Indian organised sector. Social security reforms in the organised sector have been ongoing for several years. Among the several measures taken have been the extension of coverage of the EPFO and ESIC, issuance of a Universal Account Number and smart cards to workers ensuring easy portability, linking of UAN to the biometric based UID, and amnesty schemes to incentivise establishments to register with the EPFO.

In recent months, both the EPFO and the ESIC have reported fairly dramatic increases in registration of establishments as well as workers. These reforms can potentially go a long way in giving workers access to other types of social security linked to tenure (such as gratuity benefits), as well as protection under industrial relations regulations. The study will use the EPFO data and the data on new enrolments as an entry point to explore access to formal social security. The study will also use field studies, which will analyse the impact of recent changes on access to social security and employment relations.



Ravi Srivastava is Director, Centre for Employment Studies, Institute for Human Development. He is a former Professor of Economics, Centre for the Study of Regional Development, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, and a former full-time member of the National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganised Sector (NCEUS). He has participated in over thirty major studies, and has published several books and more than a hundred papers and articles on labour and employment, migration, informality, decentralisation, uneven development, rural poverty and development, social protection, education, health, and human development.

Additional writing / Articles

1. (2019).“Emerging Dynamics of Labour Market Inequality in India: Migration, Informality, Segmentation and Social Discrimination”. The Indian Journal of Labour Economics. DOI: 10.1007/s41027-019-00178-5. (Springer).

2. (2016). “Myth and Reality of Labour Flexibility in India and What is to be Done?”. The Indian Journal of Labour Economics. Vol. 59, No. 1, pp 1-38 (Springer)

3. (2016) (with Ajaya Kumar Naik) "Growth and Informality in the Indian Economy" in K. P. Kannan, R. P. Mamgain and Preet Rustagi (eds.) Development from the Perspective of Labour: Essays in honour of Prof. T. S. Papola. New Delhi: Academic Foundation.

4. (2016). “Structural Change and Non-standard Forms of Employment in India”. International Labour Office, Inclusive Labour Markets, Labour Relations and Working Conditions Branch. - Geneva: ILO, 2016 (Conditions of Work and Employment Series ; No. 68).

5. (2012) "Changing Employment Conditions of the Indian Workforce and Implications for Decent Work," Global Labour Journal: Vol. 3: Issue 1, p. 63-90.


Sunil Kumar Mishra is presently working as a Fellow at the Institute for Human Development. He was an ICSSR Research Fellow at G. B. Pant Social Science Institute, Allahabad. His interest area is food security, child deprivation and tribal studies. He has published two books ‘Challenges of Rural Industrialization in India (Academic Excellence, 2012) and The Challenge of Inclusive Development in Rural Bihar’ (Jointly with Gerry Rodgers, Amrita Datta, Janine Rodgers and Alakh N. Sharma) IHD &Manak Publications Pvt. Ltd in 2012. He specialises in and has extensive experience in qualitative and quantitative research surveys and has managed several research, evaluation and assessment projects across major sectors and geographies.

Additional writing / Articles

1. ‘Glimpses of Women’s Lives in Rural Bihar: Impact of Male Migration’, (Jointly with Amrita Datta) ‘Indian Journal of Labour Economics’ special Issue Migration, July-September 2011 ISSN-0971-7927

2. ‘The Challenge of Inclusive Development in Rural Bihar’ (Jointly with Gerry Rodgers, Amrita Datta, Janine Rodgers and Alakh N. Sharma), Institute for Human Development in association with MANAK Publication Private Limited 2012 ISBN 978-81-7831-

3. ‘Challenges of Rural Industrialization in India: A Case Study of Kalahandi District’ Academic Excellence, New Delhi in March 2012. ISBN: 978938052558

4. Manoshi Mitra Das and Sunil Kumar Mishra, ‘Child Migration, Child Trafficking and Child Labour in India’, ILO- IPEC, Geneva and IHD, New Delhi, 2013

> View Next: Identification of best practices that promote Early Childhood Education (ECE) and address malnutrition through strategically planned holistic interventions at Anganwadi centers in rural India